The Institute for Carbon and Energy Reduction in Transport (ICERT) is a programme supported by the Oxford Martin School. The team consists of researchers from Engineering and the Transport Studies Unit.

It aims to:

  • use a whole-systems approach to energy demand reduction in vehicles to create greener transport policies; and
  • produce new methodologies to enable us to accurately estimate CO2 and energy use using insights from various disciplines to achieve the reduction of greenhouse gases emitted by road transport.

These tools are used to propose various feasible scenarios which can advise governments (and industry) in the EU and beyond in their choice of genuinely effective policy instruments. Our aim for this programme is to identify the whole infrastructure needed, from a life cycle perspective, for the successful implementation over time by studying the effects of both vehicle and fuel markets on using various new technologies to deliver practical low carbon solutions and pathways in the transport sector.


What are we doing?

We examine the effectiveness of various technical solutions in cutting the greenhouse gases emitted by cars and other road transport. We aim to understand what is needed for the implementation of practical low carbon transport.

Why is it important?

For any low-carbon transport model to be truly useful it must take account the interactions between technology and society. It is the complexity of interactions that need to be understood, and this is our key research question.

How are we different?

We operate at the interface of Engineering Science and Social Science, and use a whole-systems approach to create new transport technologies. We invent new technologies and approaches and advise governments and industry in order to increase the rate and effectiveness of carbon reduction.



  • Malcolm McCulloch
    Dr Malcolm McCulloch

    University Lecturer in Engineering Science
    Research is focused on developing research programmes in three sectors of transport, domestic and generation.

  • David Banister
    Professor David Banister

    Professor of Transport Studies
    Focus of interest is in transport research, particularly the contribution of social science to the analysis of transport. Policy Scenario Building; Reducing the Need to Travel; Climate Change, Energy and Environmental Modelling; Transport Investment and Economic Development; Rural Transport and Employment.

James Martin Fellows

  • Justin Bishop
    Dr Justin Bishop

    Research Fellow
    Before joining ICERT, Justin worked in the Electronics, Power and Energy Conversion (EPEC) group in the University of Cambridge Department of Engineering. Justin's doctoral research investigated notions of sustainable consumption, electric power generation fuel mixes which are co-integrated and optimized with transmission network planning and best-practice system deployment.

  • David Bonilla
    Dr David Bonilla

    Senior Research Fellow in Transport, Energy and Economics
    Research focuses on transport economic research, particularly the contribution of economics to the analysis of future transport. Areas of special interest include scenario building for transport to 2050, urban economics, vehicle choice and energy use, mobility, travel behaviour, carbon mitigation policies, EU freight transport policy, transport infrastructure and freight markets and behavioural economics.

  • Dr Martino Tran

    Research Fellow
    Main interest in transport and energy policy and technology. Research focuses on the system-wide effects of large-scale deployment of low-carbon transport technologies to meet climate change and energy security policy.

  • Karen Anderton
    Dr Karen Anderton

    Research Fellow
    Research focuses on organisational aspects of governance, in particular the interaction between transport and climate change policy makers and professionals in the development of low carbon transport policy. Areas of special interest include governance theory; policy implementation processes; theories of leadership; and climate change policy.


  • Colin Axon
    Dr Colin Axon

    Associate Director and Co-founder
    Senior Research Fellow at Brunel's School of Engineering and Design. Interested in energy and lifecycle assessment of technological combinations, energy sources, and infrastructure for low carbon transport. Also working on applying the tools and techniques of complexity science to energy. Colin is a physicist by training, holding degrees from the universities of London and Bristol. He has worked at the universities of Bath and Brunel andwon 18 grants for public engagement of science and engineering.

  • Robert Camilleri
    Robert Camilleri

    Research Assistant
    Prior to joining EPG, Robert worked as a research and testing engineer on a number of thermal management solutions for electronics and control cabinets, for military and industrial applications. Robert studied Mechanical Engineering at the University of Malta, and holds a MSc. in Thermal Power (Gas Turbine Technology) from Cranfield University.



Part of ICERT's work has been the development of the Oxford Vehicle Emissions and Market Diffusion Model (OVEM+). The model was designed to link dynamically market diffusion models with engineering drive-cycle models to determine both the scale and timing of different technological pathways from the thermodynamic performance of a vehicle upwards to diffusion into the market.

The model was conceived due to developments in the rapid diffusion of alternatively-fuelled vehicles (AFVs) across the globe. AFVs have become a central pathway to meet international energy security challenges and climate mitigation policy around the world. Yet the diffusion of AFV technologies will be shaped by a host of unknown factors including technological performance, consumer behaviour and socio-economic and demographic trends towards urban centres not likely to be uniform across regions or cities. There are many uncertainties in the diffusion of AFVs that have not been assessed by conventional macro-level models. Market diffusion models have not been dynamically linked to engineering drive-cycle models that can test and alter vehicle attributes based on thermodynamic boundaries. Similarly, bottom-up engineering models used to determine the economic viability of technologies largely do not account for the dynamics of market and consumer behaviour. Combining the two modelling approaches, OVEM+ aims to fill some of these fundamental knowledge gaps.

News / Events

  • News: Prof. David Banister working on a project with the UK Government as part of the Foresight Futures Programme on Scanning the Transport Horizons
  • TSU Seminar Series - Hilary Term 2013. "Transitioning towards Electric Vehicles" Tuesdays 4-6pm Weeks 1, 3, 5 and 7 - A J Herbertson Room, School of Geography and the Environment. more details
  • Seminar: Dr Malcolm McCulloch "Hands off the wheel: is it time to rethink urban mobility?", 14th May 2013, Nesta, 1 Plough Place, London. more details
  • Seminar: Dr Karen Anderton "Mapping the UK low emission vehicle policy landscape" University of Tokyo, 28 Jan 2013
  • Conference: ICERT team members chair sessions and present conference papers at the Universities Transport Studies Group's 45th Annual Conference, Oxford University, 2-4 Jan 2013
  • News: ICERT team present OVEM model to policymakers in London
  • News: Dr David Bonilla and Dr Justin Bishop participate in "Building Cities of the Future with the University of Oxford" session at the World Economic Forum's Annual Meeting of the New Champions 2012: Creating the Future Economy in Tianjin, China., more details
  • Seminar: Dr Justin Bishop, "Reducing emissions from transport modes", Oxford Energy Society, 10 Oct 2012, more details
  • Seminar: Dr David Bonilla, "Regulation or price? Analysis of innovative activity in alternative fuel vehicles in a period of economic bonanza and decline", 23 May 2012, more details
  • Seminar: Dr Martino Tran, "Agent behaviour and network influence on energy innovation diffusion", 13 Mar 2012, more details
  • News: Pushing the frontiers of vehicle efficiency, 05 Mar 2012, more details
  • Webcast: Dr Malcolm McCulloch on the Smart Meter and the Customer, Aug 2011, more details
  • Workshop: The Future of Transport and Energy Use, 25 Jun 2010, more details
  • News: Taking the electric motor to market, 14 Sep 2009, more details
  • Workshop: "Long Term Scenarios in Transport and Energy: In Search of New Methodologies", 29 May 2009, more details
  • News: Lightweight electric motor on track, 13 May 2009, more details
  • Seminar: Dr Malcolm McCulloch, "Challenge of the 21st Century Transport System in Terms of Carbon and Energy Reduction", 23 Oct 2008, more details


Other relevant resources involving members of ICERT

Contact Us

c/oTransport Studies Unit,
South Parks Road,
OX1 3QY,
United Kingdom