The EU-funded project PASTA - Physical Activity Through Sustainable Transport Approaches - project aims to connect transport and health research and practice by promoting active mobility in cities (i.e. walking and cycling, including in combination with public transport use) as an innovative way of integrating physical activity into our everyday lives. PASTA takes a broad approach in investigating how active travel (AT) contributes to physical activity (PA). It brings together perspectives from transport planning, travel behaviour and health research as well as policy and practice. Within the project a cohort study across seven European cities is investigating the key determinants of AT behaviour how AT relates to PA effectiveness of measures to promote AT. A main aim of this empirical study is to contribute to the improvement of health impact assessment (HIA) model of AT.
A comprehensive conceptual framework was developed building on previously published frameworks and underlying theories. The framework ingrates aspects relevant to both AT and PA behaviour, distinguishes data hierarchies and guides PASTA survey contents, data collection and analysis.
The core study is designed as a longitudinal web-based survey which consists of a substantial baseline questionnaire (30min) and bi-weekly short follow-ups (5min). Every 3rd FU-Q is somewhat longer (10min). Baseline and long FUQ assess travel and PA behavior through a 1-day travel diary and an adapted version of the global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ). The sample is split between the general population and a subsample exposed to one top measure per city selected to be evaluated in a before/after analysis. Participant recruitment is largely opportunistic. A recruitment monitoring dashboard is used to track progress and target recruitment to reach a balanced sample. The goal is to recruit at least 2000 participants in each of the seven cities (by June 2015 we had recruited 5000 in total). Subsamples are invited to participate in add-on modules using objective measurements of trips, activity and air pollution.
Health Impact Assessment Model
The PASTA HIA model for AT builds on previously published models as well as on insights from the PASTA survey. Previously published HIM have been reviewed systematically (Mueller N. et al., 2015, in Preventative Medicine). The survey will provide insights in AT/PA substitution, produce exposure adjusted crash rates for minor crashes and provide evidence for carbon emissions valuation for AT schemes. Selected elements of the PASTA HIA model will be fed into the further development of WHO's Health Economic Assessment Tools for walking and cycling (HEAT).
- General: http://www.pastaproject.eu
- Publications: http://www.pastaproject.eu/resources/publications/
- Raser, E., Gaupp-Berghausen, M., Dons, E., Anaya-Boig, E., Avila-Palencia, I., Brand, C., et al. (in press, corrected proof). European cyclists' travel behavior: Differences and similarities between seven European (PASTA) cities. Journal of Transport & Health.
- Mueller, N., Rojas-Rueda, D., Salmon, M., Martinez, D., Ambros, A., Brand, C., de Nazelle, A., Dons, E., Gaupp-Berghausen, M., Gerike, R., Gotschi, T., Iacorossi, F., Int Panis, L., Kahlmeier, S., Raser, E. and Nieuwenhuijsen, M. (2018) Health impact assessment of cycling network expansions in European cities. Preventive Medicine, 109: 62-70.
- Kahlmeier, S., Götschi, T., Cavill, N., Castro Fernandez, A., Brand, C., Rojas Rueda, D., Woodcock, J., Kelly, P., Lieb, C., Oja, P., Foster, C., Rutter, H. and Racioppi, F. (2017) Health economic assessment tools (HEAT) for walking and for cycling: Methods and user guide on physical activity, air pollution, injuries and carbon impact assessments. World Health Organization, Copenhagen. ISBN: 978 92 890 5278 8.
- Laeremans, M., Dons, E., Avila-Palencia, I., Carrasco-Turigas, G., Orjuela, J.P., Anaya, E., Brand, C., Cole-Hunter, T., De Nazelle, A., Götschi, T., Kahlmeier, S., Nieuwenhuijsen, M., Standaert, A., De Boever, P., Int Panis, L. (2017) Physical activity and sedentary behaviour in daily life: A comparative analysis of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) and the SenseWear armband. PLoS ONE 12(5).
- Health Impact Assessment tool: http://www.pastaproject.eu/resources/hia-tool/
Major outputs and more information on the project can be accessed via the PASTA project website.
For more information on this research project please contact Dr Christian Brand.