© georgejmclittle/AdobeStock

Reducing congestion, air pollution, energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions associated with private car use are significant issues of interest to transport policy makers, scholars and the public. Car sharing or clubs, where cars are accessed as a time and/or distance-based service rather than privately owned, reduces private car use and private car ownership. The interdisciplinary TEMPEST (Transforming household mobility practices through shared consumption: Low-carbon transport and sustainable energy solutions in urban areas) which through comparative case studies of the UK, the Netherlands, Sweden and Norway, seeks to develop an understanding of how national and urban contexts and policies influence the development and use of car sharing (aka car club) schemes.

Aims and objectives

The main aim of the project is to develop an understanding of the conditions necessary for systemic changes in the transport system from private transportation toward shared mobility services. The four related research questions and five workpackages of the project are:

  1. What are the key social, technical and political factors which might influence a transition towards a low-carbon and low-energy urban mobility transport system involving shared mobility services? (WP1)
  2. What are the key factors which have given rise to households participating in shared mobility services such as public and private car sharing schemes? (WP2 & WP4)
  3. How can public (i.e., transport planners and policy-makers) and private (i.e., car-sharing organisations) stakeholders stimulate transitions towards shared mobility services in urban regions? (WP3)
  4. What is the potential future uptake of shared mobility services, and what are the potential implications for energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions? (WP5)

Research Approach

The project will adopt a mixed method approach employing both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The first phase of research will involve a desktop study of factors which have shaped car sharing in each country (WP1) and interviews with key public and private stakeholders to explore their organisations' involvement and role in car sharing, their expectations and visions associated with different schemes and the factors which support and/or discourage the development and use of car sharing (WP1 & WP3).

The second phase will involve interviews and the use of life graph drawing techniques with individuals and households participating in different car sharing models (e.g., business to consumer; peer to peer) to examine their mobility biographies, everyday life, travel and car sharing practices (WP2 & WP4).

In the final phase of the research experts will be engaged to develop scenarios related to the potential future uptake of shared mobility services and the possible implications for energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.


The main outputs of the project will be 6 peer-reviewed journal articles and a final report of the research findings and recommendations to policymakers related to the future use of shared mobility services.

Further Information

For more information on this research project please contact Dr Brendan Doody.